1 Which of the following is/are basic phases of creating 3-D computer graphics?
- 3-D modeling
- 3-D rendering
- Computer animation
2 Which of the following are common shading models?
3 Which of the following statements about pixels are true? (Answer all that apply)
- A pixel has a dimension
- A pixel is a point
- Pixels are visible
- A pixel can have coordinates
4 Which of the following colors belong to the most common three-color additive color model used in video displays or otherwise used to describe the physical concepts involved?
5 Which of the following is/are typical steps in a graphical pipeline that converts three-dimensional objects for two-dimensional display or printing?
- Hidden line/hidden surface removal (HLHSR)
- Viewport mapping and clipping
- Writing to the framebuffer
6 Which of the following colors belong to the standard four-color subtractive color model used in color printing or otherwise used to describe the printing process?
7 Which of the following file formats are popular vector-graphics formats?
8 _________ adds appropriately colored pixels to an image to make it seem as though more colors were present in the original
- Over print
9 What does the term “stroke weight” denote?
- A term that illustration software uses to specify the thickness of a line when drawing a path
- A process where the software adds new pixels to an image based on the color values of the surrounding pixels
- A term for the descriptive information embedded inside an image or other type of file
- A measurement of the output quality of an image, usually in terms of samples, pixels, dots, or lines per inch
10 The effect that occurs when an object nearer to the viewport in 3-D space blocks (masks) another, more distant object from view is called:
11 What is meant by the term projection?
- The process of mapping three dimensional images to two dimensions for display
- An interpolation technique used to remove texture distortion, stair casing, or jagged edges at the edges of an object
- The part of the graphics engine that draws 3-D primitives, usually triangles or other simple polygons
- Wrapping a texture image onto an object to create a realistic representation of the object in 3D space
12 What is meant by the term rigging?
- A combination of colors that appear to have a stronger impact and highly visible look
- The area of the graphics memory used to store the Z or depth information about rendered objects
- The process of linking a 3-D object, such as modeling a character, to its bone structure (skeletal animation)
- The process of applying a texture to the surface of 3-D models to simulate walls, sky, etc
13 A technique for achieving higher quality in lower-quality images is called __________ It takes advantage of an optical illusion to simulate 24-bit quality with 8-bit or 16-bit images:
- 3-D pipeline
- Surface removal
14 Which of the following raster graphics editors used to process digital graphics and photographs is/are open source, instead of being proprietary?
- Paint Shop Pro (PSP)
- Photoshop Elements
15 Which one of the following graphics standard specifications is the main competitor to Microsoft’s Direct3D (the 3D graphics API within DirectX)?
- X 11
- IRIS GL
16 Which one of the following is a data structure used to organize objects within a space, which can be used in hidden-surface removal and in ray tracing?
- Patch mesh
- Circular buffer
- Binary space partitioning (BSP) tree
- Hash table
17 What does the term “constraint” imply?
- A graphics processing technique that simulates transparency or translucency for objects in a 3D scene to create visual effects like smoke, glass, or water
- The section of the graphics memory that stores the stencil data
- A rule or condition that must be followed regarding how the individual objects within an graphic can or cannot move, such as a wrist having to be attached to both a hand and an end of the lower arm
- Memory that is dedicated to the graphics processor and used to store rendered pixels before they are displayed on the monitor
18 What is meant by the term fog?
- The mixing of an image with a fixed color that thickens as the image’s pixels get further away from the viewpoint
- A special type of channel used in graphics software for saving selections
- a technique of blending bitmap-based images and text to reduce the stair-stepping or jagged appearance
- The relationship of an image’s width to height or its proportions
19 What does the term “jaggies” imply?
- Image that continues from one page of a publication across the gutter or spine to the facing page
- The stair-step effect seen along curves and edges in text or bit-mapped graphics
- In halftone screens, a measurement of resolution or detail
- A photographic proof made from assembled (stripped) negatives
20 The first procedure in the OpenGL pipeline is to transform a 3-D point that is defined in the object coordinate system into the world coordinate system This step has three possible transformations: rotation, scaling, and translation Which one of those below is typically the correct order for executing these three transformations?
- First rotation, then translation, and then scaling
- First scaling, then rotation, and then translation
- First translation, then scaling, and then rotation
- First scaling, then translation, and then rotation
21 In computer animation, the entire frame is redrawn for each frame What of the following would reduce flicker between frames?
- Surface removal
- Phong shading
- Double buffering
22 Bitmapped graphics are also known as:
- Vector graphics
- Raster graphics
- Line work
- Ray tracing
23 Select from the following choices the one that most closely completes the Shannon sampling theorem: “The ideal samples of a continuous function contain all the information in the original function if and only if the continuous function is sampled at a frequency ________________ the highest frequency in the function”
- Equal to
- Greater than twice
- Greater than one-half
- Less than one-half
24 In computer graphics, when a line or object is moved where one end or point stays fixed in position is termed as:
- Perfect banding
- Rubber banding
- Print banding
- Saddle banding
25 Which of the following best describes the term “vertex-vertex polygon mesh?”
- A process by which color information is interpolated across the face of the polygon to determine the colors at each pixel
- A method of using two buffers, one for display and the other for rendering
- The simplest mathematical representation of a mesh, but which is not widely used due to the lack of explicit face and edge information
- A method of increasing the quality of a texture map by applying different-resolution texture maps for different objects in the same image, depending on their size and depth
26 Which of the following polygon meshes is most commonly used in mesh modelling because its input data are more readily acceptable to modern hardware?
- Vertex-vertex mesh
- Winged-edge mesh
- Vertex-face mesh
- Quad-edge mesh
27 Which of the following rotation techniques gives the best results?
- Euler angles
- 3 by 3 matrix
28 What is meant by the term gradient?
- A binary representation in which a bit or set of bits corresponds to some part of an object such as an image or font
- In computer graphics, a curve that is generated using a mathematical formula which assures continuity with other b-splines
- A color (or grayscale) fill that gradually blends from one color to another, perhaps from light to dark, for example
- In computer graphics, a technique for simulating rough textures by creating irregularities in shading
29 The serial execution of the processes applied to geometric primitives (text, lines, polygons, curves, and surfaces) in a graphics package to produce two-dimensional output is called its:
- Execution LIFO stack
- Graphical modeling
- Rendering pipeline
30 What does the term “spline” imply?
- In computer-aided design, a smooth curve that runs through a series of given points
- The smallest rectangular region of a picture or a frame buffer for which you can specify unique properties such as color and transparency
- Simulating a condition or activity by performing a set of equations on a set of data
- An interface that allows for the transfer of a digital video signal from a computer to a display, which increases the image quality and performance over a comparable analog system
31 Another term for the video output device for storing the graphic image as it is being formed and later used for displaying the image is:
- FIFO stack
- Frame buffer
- Flash drive
- L3 cache
32 A modeling technique based upon a formal grammar whereby complex shapes are recursively generated from relatively simpleprocedures is termed as:
- Flush right
- Coated stock
33 The process of using an image described in a vector-graphics format and converting it into a bitmapped image as output on a display or printer, or as storage in a bitmapped file is known as
34 Which one of the color parameters measures how far away the color is from gray?
35 An image rendering process that builds images based upon the propagation of light rays and the effects of absorption, reflection, and refraction associated with the objects being scanned is termed as:
- Ray tracing
36 Images based upon geometric elements, such as points, curves, and surfaces, that follow mathematical equations are called:
37 Which of the following techniques reduces the appearance of jagged edges of lines and edges in raster graphics?
- Warnock space subdivision
- Depth sort
- Gouraud shading
38 What does the term “depth sort” imply?
- To convert an image or signal into digital code by scanning, tracing on a graphics tablet, or using an analog to digital conversion device
- An algorithm for creating a hidden-line drawing of polygon data sets by drawing the polygons from the most distant to the closest, in order
- The simulation of a continuous-tone image (shaded drawing, photograph) with dots
- In computer graphics, a particular shade or tint of a given color
39 What does the term “bezier” imply?
- A measurement of printer resolution that defines how many dots of ink are placed on the page when the image is printed
- The term that describes one way that illustration software may create curves and shapes by using control points and control handles
- Special points placed around an active object that are used to manipulate the object when clicked and dragged with the mouse or other pointing device
- A graph that depicts the tonal range of an image
40 In computer graphics, a technique in which irregularities in shading are created for simulating rough textures is called:
- Cosine mapping
- Bump mapping
- Bleed mapping
- Image mapping
41 When considering illumination from light sources, which of the following types of light sources has the same intensity in all directions:
- Point source
- Spot light
- Parallel light
42 Which of the following is the most commonly used lighting model?
- Texture mapping
43 What does the term “flythrough” imply?
- A series of mathematical operations that act on output primitives and geometric attributes to convert them from modeling coordinates to device coordinates
- A memory buffer used to hold one line of video
- Displayed representation of a scene or an object that appears to have three axes of reference: height, width, and depth (x, y, and z)
- A type of animation in which the camera moves around a scene, rather than objects moving in front of a stationary camera
44 The number of bits per pixel typically used for the color depth to be described as being a truecolor format is:
45 In a 3-D graphics environment, the process of subdividing a surface into a mesh of smaller shapes that are easy to analyze is known as:
- Texture mapping
46 Which of the following types of reflection transmits light in all direction with the same energy?
- Retro reflection
47 The process whereby a specific key color (often blue or green) within an image is made transparent when that image is mixed with another image is known as:
- Graphic keying
- Chroma keying
- Shade keying
- Scissors keying
48 Which of the following vector graphics editors used to process digital graphics is/are open source, instead of being proprietary?
49 The rendering of three-dimensional computer graphics often employs one or more approaches to model a complex four-dimensional mathematical function that defines the physical behavior of light at an opaque surface This fundamental radiometric concept is known as the:
- Kummer’s function
- Reisz function
- Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF)
- Mittag-Leffler function
50 Which of the following graphic formats allow for animation?
51 A process in 2-D computer graphics whereby a closed vector path is used to mask (block) parts of an image is known as:
- Double path
- Palletized path
- Keying path
- Clipping path
52 What is meant by the term auto trace?
- A part of off-screen memory that holds the distance from the viewpoint for each pixel, the Z-value
- A programmed function in illustration software that converts raster graphics into vector graphics whereby paths are created along the edges of a scanned image
- A process of removing hidden surfaces by sorting polygons in back-to-front order prior to rendering
- Areas in an image with a blocky or blotchy appearance
53 Which one of the following formats would provide the least amount of pixelation when its dimensions are scaled (magnified) in size?
54 What is meant by the term crop?
- In proportional spacing, the tightening of space between letters to create a visually appealing flow to the text
- The analysis of a picture using techniques that can identify shades, colors, and relationships that cannot be perceived by the human eye
- Changing or improving graphics images, either interactively using a paint program or by using software routines that alter contrast, smooth lines, or filter out unwanted data
- Trimming or masking of photos, graphics, drawings, or illustrations
55 What is meant by the term stroke?
- A reddish brown monochrome tint that gives the picture a warm, antique feeling
- A term that illustration software uses to describe the width of a line in a path
- A photograph whose edges fade out gradually
- Copying a block of pixels from one place to another
56 Which of the following graphical formats is/are always low-resolution (8-bit) bitmap graphics?
57 The vector-graphics package that was developed by Microsoft is:
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