**1. Prior experience and situational analysis are important in making decisions when a person does not have enough information to calculate the probability of occurrence of an event.**

**Answers:**

- True
- False

**2. The following are data collection methods except:**

**Answers:**

- Surveys
- Observation
- Sampling
- Designed experiments

**3. Population parameters include the following except:**

**Answers:**

- population mean
- population variance
- population standard deviation
- population hypothesis

**4. ______ is one way to understand the relationship between two variables that occur at the same time.**

**Answers:**

- Regression analysis
- Correlation
- Variance
- Sampling

**5. ______ is the most frequent value that is present in your data.**

**Answers:**

- Standard deviation
- Mean
- Mode
- None of the above

**6. A study finds that children who spend more hours in TV viewing score lower class grades in school. This correlation is an example of:**

**Answers:**

- Positive correlation
- Negative correlation
- No correlation

**7. Arranging your target population in an ordered scheme from which participants or items are chosen at regular intervals is an example of:**

**Answers:**

- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Stratified sampling

**8. When a researcher doesn’t know much about a certain problem and wants to gain more information about it, which research design will he use?**

**Answers:**

- Exploratory
- Descriptive
- Casual

**9. The _____ is a useful tool for assessing whether the means of two groups of variable are statistically different from each other.**

**Answers:**

- sample mean
- T-test
- null hypothesis
- alternative hypothesis

**10. There are two ways to present categorical data. One is by way of graphs, the other is by way of _________.**

**Answers:**

- charts
- pie diagram
- histograms
- tables

**11. Describe the relationship between the two variables in the above given scatter plot.**

**Answers:**

- Positive
- Negative
- No correlation
- Weak negative

**12. When a person conducts analysis using data he or she has not collected, the source of such data is called:**

**Answers:**

- Primary source
- Secondary source
- Firsthand source
- Basic data source

**13. The Causal Research design is used when the ______ factor about some phenomenon or issue is being researched.**

**Answers:**

- Why
- How
- What
- When

**14. Which of the following form(s) part of descriptive analysis?**

**Answers:**

- Collecting raw data
- Summarizing raw data
- Analyzing raw data
- All of the above

**15. While following the Scientific Research steps, a researcher has to construct a hypothesis soon after defining the problem.**

**Answers:**

- True
- False

**16. A sample of a population is:**

**Answers:**

- a subset of the population you are studying.
- a set of entities concerning which statistical inferences are to be drawn.
- a set of potential measurements or values.
- a subset of potential future subjects.

**17. The formula given above is that of:**

**Answers:**

- Population variance
- Population mean
- Population standard deviation
- Z-score

**18. The relationship between two variables is of two types. One is Linear, the other is:**

**Answers:**

- Positive
- Curvilinear
- Negative

**19. Which type of sampling method solicits the opinions of pre-selected experts?**

**Answers:**

- Convenience sampling
- Judgment sampling
- Stratified sampling

**20. According to probability concepts, the chance that an event will never happen is:**

**Answers:**

- between 0 to 1
- 0
- 1
- a and c

**21. Which of these can be used as source(s) of data collection?**

**Answers:**

- Magazines and Newspapers
- Census Bureau
- Television
- a & b

**22. Probability can be determined by:**

**Answers:**

- Subjective Evidence
- Prior Knowledge
- Future Knowledge
- a and b
- a and c

**23. If a company’s production is consistently going down due to some reasons, which technique or method would you employ to analyze those reasons/causes?**

**Answers:**

- Simple linear regression
- Multiple linear regression
- Critical analysis
- Correlation analysis

**24. Statistics is a branch of __________.**

**Answers:**

- psychology
- geography
- mathematics
- social science

**25. Which important information does the correlation analysis of variables give about the relationship between the variables?**

**Answers:**

- Type of relationship
- Interdependency of relations
- Strength of relationship
- a & b
- a & c
- b & c

**26. What is the probability of occurrence of a Type I error referred to as?**

**Answers:**

- Level of significance
- Level of error
- Level of probability
- Level of acceptance

**27. The population you are interested in studying is called:**

**Answers:**

- Sample population
- Item population
- Target population

**28. Standard deviation is the most common measure of __________.**

**Answers:**

- dispersion
- central tendency
- clustering

**29. The components of Simple Linear Regression model include the following except:**

**Answers:**

- The slope
- The random error term
- The intercept
- The dependent variable

**30. Stem and leaf display is an example of:**

**Answers:**

- Frequency distribution
- Ordered array
- Pareto diagram
- None of the above

**31. When you are figuring out How to collect, process and analyze data, you are:**

**Answers:**

- Designing your research
- Analyzing your data
- Reporting new findings
- Constructing a hypothesis

**32. The following statements regarding a Hypothesis are true except:**

**Answers:**

- A hypothesis is an educated guess.
- It is an assumption based on relationship between two or more variables.
- It helps to design your research.
- It can be true or false.

**33. Statistics can be divided into 2 broad sections. One is Descriptive Statistics, the other is:**

**Answers:**

- Inferential Statistics
- Cumulative Statistics
- Differential Statistics
- Analytical Statistics

**34. In statistical analysis, central tendency points to the clustering of the data around a _____________.**

**Answers:**

- median
- central value
- mode
- point

**35. Which data category uses numbers to indicate a classification?**

**Answers:**

- Cardinal
- Ordinal
- Nominal
- Parametric

**36. Numerical data can be presented by way of which of the following:**

**Answers:**

- Ordered array
- Pareto diagram
- Frequency distribution
- a&b
- a&c
- b&c

**37. Trying to learn more about a larger population from a small sample, is an example of:**

**Answers:**

- descriptive analysis
- inferential analysis
- exploratory analysis
- none of the above

**38. Of the three Measures of central tendency, which one is the most sensitive to outliers?**

**Answers:**

- Mean (Arithmetic)
- Median
- Mode

**39. _________ is one of the basic methods of inferential statistics that helps a researcher determine the difference between a real and a random pattern in a data set.**

**Answers:**

- Hypothesis testing
- Population parameters
- Regression analysis
- Sample testing

**40. Cluster sampling and Stratified sampling form part of Probability Sampling Methods.**

**Answers:**

- True
- False

**41. Probability proves useful:**

**Answers:**

- in understanding the probability of occurrence of an event or a phenomenon.
- in deducing larger implications from a given data.
- Both a and b
- Neither a nor b

**42. Cross tabulation of data is possible through the following:**

**Answers:**

- Contingency tables
- Scatter plot
- Side-by-side bar chart
- All of the above

**43. The correlation co-efficient quantifies the strength of the relationship between two variables and the value of this co-efficient falls between:**

**Answers:**

- -1.0 and +1.0
- +1.0 and +0.81
- -1.0 and -0.81
- -0.21 and +0.40

**44. Examples of Measures of central tendency include:**

**Answers:**

- Mean
- Range
- Variance
- None of the above

**45. While accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis , ________ are the regions that help to arrive at a decision.**

**Answers:**

- special regions
- borderline regions
- critical regions

**46. A good research plan should include the following except:**

**Answers:**

- Research Questions
- Research Designs
- Prior Knowledge
- Participants

**47. What will be the potential sampling frame(s) for a survey whose target population is infant children?**

**Answers:**

- medical facilities (such as hospitals and clinics) recording births within the past 12 months.
- households whose occupants include infants under 12 months old.
- Official school directories
- Both a and b

**48. The advantage(s) of Scientific Research Method is/are:**

**Answers:**

- It investigates the problem exhaustively
- It is a systematic, controlled and empirical investigation of hypothesis.
- a and b
- None of the above

**49. Which graphical tool is used to arrive at decisions by presenting and comparing a number of competing alternatives?**

**Answers:**

- Contingency table
- Bar graph
- Decision tree

**50. The process in which data about the variables is collected and then predictions are made about future outcome is called:**

**Answers:**

- Regression analysis
- Future analysis
- Correlation analysis
- None of the above

**51. Which of the following is not an example of hypothesis?**

**Answers:**

- What percentage of people pass their driving test in the first attempt?
- The average age of cell phone users city-wide is 40 years.
- The average salary of teachers in the entire school district is $50,000.
- A public health official believes that 60% of all elderly people have received flu examination in the previous year.

**52. Commonly employed qualitative research methods include:**

**Answers:**

- Focus groups
- Case studies
- Surveys
- a and c
- a and b

**53. In the above image it is stated that:**

**Answers:**

- the average of the given data is not 40.
- the alternative hypothesis is that the mean of the given data is 40.
- the null hypothesis is that the mean value of the given data is 40.

**54. How is a Type II error symbolized as?**

**Answers:**

- ß
- α
- Δ
- ∞

**55. When the data values are tightly clustered around the mean, the bell shaped curve is:**

**Answers:**

- skewed
- flat
- steep
- None of the above

**56. In the Sampling Process, soon after identifying the sampling method comes the process of:**

**Answers:**

- determining your sample size
- sampling and data collection
- reviewing your sampling process

**57. How many types of major sampling methods are there?**

**Answers:**

- 3
- 2
- 4
- 5

**58. The above-given image is an example of:**

**Answers:**

- Bar graph
- Pie chart
- Line chart
- Pareto diagram

**59. In correlation analysis, we designate one variable as an independent variable and the other as a dependent variable.**

**Answers:**

- True
- False

**60. In a set of 40 General Knowledge questions 5 are based on International Relations. In a computer generated test only 30 of these 40 questions will be picked up. What is the probability of at least one of these 5 questions (on International Relations) being picked up randomly out of the selected 30?**

**Answers:**

- 0.16
- 0.26
- 1
- 0.01

**61. Ordinal numbers or data are primarily concerned with:**

**Answers:**

- comparisons
- rankings
- classifications
- predictions

**62. The idea behind reviewing existing knowledge is:**

**Answers:**

- to select the right research study tools.
- to be guided by previous research studies.
- to be careful of not repeating the errors of previous studies.
- All of the above

**63. It is important to categorize your data and data can be categorized into the following categories:**

**Answers:**

- ordinal
- interval
- classical
- ratio
- a,b and d

**64. Find out the median of the following data set:**

**8126m; 8611m; 7817m; 8172m; 8076m; 8848m; 8598m**

**Answers:**

- 7817m
- 8598m
- 8172m
- 8126m

**65. The following are the test scores in history for ten students:**

**61,10,88,37,61,72,55,61,46,22.**

**Calculate the mode of these test scores.**

**Answers:**

- 88
- 61
- 10
- 55

**66. In marketing research, which measure of central tendency is often used in a set of ordinal data?**

**Answers:**

- Mean
- Variance
- Mode
- Median

**67. Which of the following is not a research ethic?**

**Answers:**

- Transparency
- Anonymity
- Risk of harm
- Informed consent

**68. A ________ is a graphic representation of data based on paired observations.**

**Answers:**

- scatter plot
- pie chart
- bar chart
- pareto diagram

**69. Compute the Range for the given hourly wages (in $) of janitors:**

**8, 10,12, 14, 16, 18**

**Answers:**

- $12
- $10
- $14
- $6

**70. Once a sample is drawn from the population, how close the sample is to the larger population is to be determined. This is known as:**

**Answers:**

- Sampling error
- Variance error
- Statistical error

**71. Statistics helps in making inferences and drawing conclusions. These conclusions in turn help in:**

**Answers:**

- decision-making
- hypothesis testing
- data collection
- a and b

**72. In which chart is the data organized in a descending order and includes a trend line as well?**

**Answers:**

- Pareto chart
- Area chart
- Side-by-side bar chart
- Scatter plot

**73. ______takes into account the distance of every point in the scatter plot from the trend line.**

**Answers:**

- Random error term
- Slope
- Intercept
- Dependent variable

**74. The middle point of a data set arranged in an array from the smallest to the largest value is called:**

**Answers:**

- mean
- median
- mode

**75. In which of the following fields is ANOVA used to make comparisons amongst groups?**

**Answers:**

- In product research and development.
- In education and training.
- In human factor analysis.
- All of the above

**76. The reasons for choosing a sample out of a population are:**

**Answers:**

- Cost limits
- Time limits
- Easy availability
- High reliability
- c and d
- a and b

**77. The following are the steps in the process of Cluster sampling. Put them in the right order:**

**1)Randomly select the needed number of clusters for the sample.**

**2)Assign the population to different clusters.**

**3)Include all the population members of the selected cluster in the sample. Alternatively, select only a certain number of population members from each cluster (through simple or systematic random sampling) for the sample.**

**Answers:**

- 2,1,3
- 2,3,1
- 1,2,3
- 1,3,2

**78. The events that are not affected by other outcomes are called:**

**Answers:**

- Probable events
- Improbable events
- Independent events
- None of the above

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